Landlocked countries have no territorial access to the seas, limited border crossings and transit dependence.
Due to their remoteness, landlocked countries are dependent on neighbouring transit countries for their external trade and suffer from high trade transaction costs. Huge transport costs, inadequate infrastructure and bottlenecks associated with importation and exportation requirements can be a serious stumbling block to their integration into the global economy, impairing export competitiveness or the inflow of foreign investment.
There are 31 landlocked developing countries(LLDCs) world-wide: 15 are located in Africa, 12 in Asia, 2 in Latin America and 2 in Central and Eastern Europe. According to the World Bank (1999), LLDCs are paying around 50 percent more in transport costs than coastal countries, and have up to 60 percent lower volumes of trade. Inefficient customs and transit transport procedures are considered to be the main cause of delays and high transport costs and represent a greater obstacle to trade for LLDCs than tariffs.
As a result of the LLDCs marginalization in global trade, the amount contributed by LLDCs to developing countries’ share of global exports has exhibited a consistent decline. Their proportion of developing country exports has fallen from an already small portion of 2.4 percent in 1990 to only 2 percent in 2000, representing a yearly decrease of 2.1 percent. In contrast, the share accounted for by transit developing countries rose from 53 percent to 60 per cent, which was an annual increase of 1.1 percent. This trend attests to the marginalization of LLDCs that has been taking place in the world economy.
The International Ministerial Conference of Landlocked and Transit Developing Countries and Donor Countries and International Financial and Development Institutions on Transit Transport Cooperation was held in Almaty, Kazakhstan, in August 2003, in order to address the challenges of LLDCs. As a result, the ministers of 30 LLDCs adopted the Almaty Programme of Action (PDF): Addressing the Special Needs of Landlocked Developing Countries within a New Global Framework For Transit Transport Cooperation for Landlocked and Transit Developing Countries and the Almaty Ministerial Declaration.
The GFP welcomes feedback/additions/tools from practitioners, who either applied the GFP methodology or are using their own instruments. The GFP is particularly interested in collecting and assembling all the methodologies, survey instruments and results developed and used by its Partners.
Please e-mail those to firstname.lastname@example.org and suggest the topic(s) under which they could be included. Or post relevant documents under your partner profile and assign them to this topic.
29 Apr - Joe Costello, Minister of State at Ireland’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, has completed a visit to the United Republic of Tanzania at which he reviewed the impact of the UNCTAD Port Training Programme.Read more ...
Countries’ access to world markets depends largely on their transport connectivity, especially as regards regular shipping services for the import and export of manufactured goods. UNCTAD’s Liner Shipping Connectivity Index (LSCI) aims at capturing a country’s level of integration into global liner shipping networks.
The Review of Maritime Transport is an UNCTAD flagship publication, published annually since 1968.
Around 80 per cent of the volume of international trade in goods is carried by sea, and the percentage is even higher for most developing countries. The Review of Maritime Transport provides an analysis of structural and cyclical changes affecting seaborne trade, ports and shipping, as well as an extensive collection of statistical information. Every issue provides data and insights on:
More than 80 per cent of international trade in goods is carried by sea, and an even higher percentage of developing-country trade is carried in ships.
The Review of Maritime Transport, an annual publication prepared by the Division on Technology and Logistics of the UNCTAD secretariat, is an important source of information on this vital sector. It closely monitors developments affecting world seaborne trade, freight rates, ports, surface transport and logistics services, as well as trends in ship ownership and control and fleet age, tonnage supply and productivity.
This new edition of the toolkit provides an opportunity not only to reflect the changes in the trade environment and the need for additional features in the toolkit, but also to benefit from the experiences of the assessments already undertaken based on the original edition. In 2001, the Bank issued a first Trade and Transport Facilitation Audit (TTFA) toolkit based on an original concept developed by John Raven. This initial concept was extensively revised to give the new toolkit an increased operational focus.
1. UNCTAD organized in Geneva on 8 and 9 July 2008 the “Global preparatory meeting on the midterm review of the implementation of the Almaty Programme of Action: Trade facilitation opportunities for landlocked and transit developing countries”. The meeting was a contribution by UNCTAD to the high-level midterm review of the Almaty Programme of Action.
The New Eurasian Land Transport Initiative (NELTI) was launched in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, on the occasion of an international conference on the development of road freight operations in the Central Asian region, held on 16 September, which gathered representatives from UNESCAP, UNECE, Transport Ministries of European and Asian countries, NGOs and international road transport carriers' associations in the region.
Based on a detailed empirical study, this paper argues that regional liberalization of trucking services has had an important effect on transport costs and tariffs for Zambia’s economy. Zambia is a peculiar example in Southern Africa as it benefits from relatively low transport costs compared with other landlocked countries in Africa. This is mainly because of competition between Zambian and other regional, mainly South African, operators and because of South African investments in Zambia’s trucking industry.
This report examines measures to improve management of international transport corridors. From a physical perspective, these are defined as a collection of routes constructed from the transport networks of adjoining countries and bounded by gateways. They are somewhat complex because they are usually multi-modal and include multiple border crossings.
The study Trade Facilitation in Selected Landlocked Countries in Asiawas conducted by UNESCAP with the aim to increase understanding of the specific trade facilitation issues and conditions in the selected landlocked countries of the Caucasus and Central Asian subregion. Part One looks at trade facilitation in Asia Pacific region in general and at the problems, challenges and needs of landlocked countries. It also provides policy recommendations to enhance institutional infrastructure of landlocked countries for trade facilitation.
At the turn of the new Millennium international trade facilitation, in the relatively restricted sense of simplification of trading procedures, was a pedestrian activity with few political overtones. A few months later a new and elevated level of inter-governmental, and so commercial, interest was reached in the run-up to the WTO Doha Ministerial Conference and its programmed debate on an additional negotiating “package” of four unfamiliar items including “Trade Facilitation”.
The Almaty Agenda comprises a list of recommendations and a Program of Action promulgated by the United Nations Economic and Social Council’s Body on Least Developed and Landlocked Developing Countries at the Almaty Ministerial Conference held in Kazakhstan in August 2003.
This document written by Philippe Cabanius, an UNCTAD consultant, describes the current status and procedures of Central African Transit Systems and offers recommendations for facilitating trade in Central African LLDCs. Click here to view the PDF document.
In this powerpoint presentation, Gael Rablalland uses an economic analysis to determine the impact of landlockedness on countries' economies. To test the effect, Raballand measures three varialbes: Distance from a major port, Ability to export through a major port, and the number of border-crossings. Click here to view the document.
This document identifies the common issues and concerns related to physical and non-physical barriers that characterize the transit transport systems of landlocked and transit developing countries in the ESCAP region. It also provides a methodology to help identify and quantify bottlenecks, bringing stronger focus and greater clarity to a number of priority policy recommendations designed to assist landlocked developing countries in reducing the cost of imports, improving the competitiveness of their exports and attracting foreign direct investment.